The below training fitness standards are different from the Applicant Physical Abilities Test (APAT) fitness standards. The objective of this study is to assess whether additional treatment in the form of physical fitness-based training, delivered as supported or unsupported treadmill or electromechanical gait training, for patients early after stroke will provide benefits in terms of outcomes that reflect their daily living – in particular gait speed and the Barthel Index (BI), a measure of ADL (co-primary outcome measures), both immediately after the intervention, 3 months (after stroke onset) (primary outcome), and at medium-term (6 months) follow-up.
Additional secondary endpoints, to be assessed at baseline, end of intervention, and 3 and 6 months post-stroke include the following (see also Table 2 and Additional file 1 ): mobility (gait endurance, Actigraph, Rivermead Mobility Index), motor function and spasticity (Rivermead Arm Test, Box and Block Test, Medical Research Council scale, REsistance to PASsive movement scale), cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Trail Making Test A and B, Semantic and Phonemic Word Fluency), disability, mood and quality of life (Euro Quality of Life 5 Dimension 5 Level scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, modified Rankin scale), and physical fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, gait energy expenditure).
Desbonnet and Macfadden can be seen as the precursors of the health and fitness industry as we know it. From there, we enter the age of confusion — the age of fitness-as-business and its many fads, with its current aesthetics-driven, body-building approach, the use of increasingly sophisticated exercise machines in gyms, home equipment, the huge supplement business, countless magazines, books, DVDs, an even now the emergence of tech-based exercise with numerous fitness apps.
From the Institute for Sport, Physical Education, and Health Sciences (SPEHS), Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom (D.H.S.); Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, United Kingdom (M.S.); Department of Clinical Therapies, Faculty of Education and Health Science, Health Research Institute (HRI), University of Limerick, Ireland (S.H.); Institute of Sport Exercise and Health, University College London, United Kingdom (M.K.); School of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation Sciences, MRC-Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (C.A.G.); Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom (M.B.); and Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (G.E.M.).
Firstly, we will answer the question whether physical fitness intervention starting in the early rehabilitative phase after stroke will benefit their daily living – in particular in terms of gait speed and the BI. Secondly, we will provide first-time ever information on the effects of physical fitness intervention on language and cognitive function after stroke, and add further evidence to its effect on quality of life measures.
Regular physical activity is a factor that helps reduce an individual’s blood pressure and improves cholesterol levels, two key components that correlate with heart disease and Type 2 Diabetes 32 The American Cancer Society encourages the public to “adopt a physically active lifestyle” by meeting the criteria in a variety of physical activities such as hiking, swimming, circuit training, resistance raining, lifting, etc.
We then subtracted first session performance from subsequent sessions for each participant 7 We conducted separate repeated measures analyses of variance on these standardized scores for each training group as a function of training session and found that all training groups (including the active control group) significantly improved over the course of study (Supplemental Table 1 ). The active control group (AC; n = 66) received training on visual search and change detection tasks that were not designed to transfer to tests of executive function (EF), working memory (WM), episodic memory (EM), or fluid intelligence (GF) that were administered before and after the interventions.