The below training fitness standards are different from the Applicant Physical Abilities Test (APAT) fitness standards. Regular physical activity is a factor that helps reduce an individual’s blood pressure and improves cholesterol levels, two key components that correlate with heart disease and Type 2 Diabetes 32 The American Cancer Society encourages the public to “adopt a physically active lifestyle” by meeting the criteria in a variety of physical activities such as hiking, swimming, circuit training, resistance raining, lifting, etc.
While the underlying mechanisms for these synergistic effects are not fully understood, researchers have suggested that exercise may aid learning via long-term potentiation and hippocampal neurogenesis as well as a variety of other structural and functional brain changes 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , which might then prime” the brain for subsequent enhancement via cognitive training 17 , 18 If this is true, then one might expect performance on theoretically motivated cognitive games, such as the ones in the current study, to be enhanced when paired with exercise compared to cognitive games that have not been supplemented with exercise.
Indeed, most of the research on the efficacy of fitness training for cognition and brain health comes from exercise programs that are focused on improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness rather than mixed programs of resistance, skills, and cardiorespiratory fitness training as used in the present study 15 , 54 Also, despite our large sample size and random assignment to training group, it is possible that individual differences in cognitive abilities obscured any potential transfer effects.
At the very beginning of the 20th century, at the same time Georges Hebert developed and promoted his Natural Method,” another Frenchman, Professor Edmond Desbonnet, managed to make physical exercise and strength training fashionable through the publication of fitness journals (he used photography to capture male and female athletes) and by opening a chain of exercise clubs.
From the Institute for Sport, Physical Education, and Health Sciences (SPEHS), Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom (D.H.S.); Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, United Kingdom (M.S.); Department of Clinical Therapies, Faculty of Education and Health Science, Health Research Institute (HRI), University of Limerick, Ireland (S.H.); Institute of Sport Exercise and Health, University College London, United Kingdom (M.K.); School of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation Sciences, MRC-Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (C.A.G.); Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom (M.B.); and Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (G.E.M.).